Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder in women ovulation characterized by high levels of androgens, the presence of cysts in the ovaries and irregular or absent menstrual periods, and other symptoms. It is a condition that occurs when there is a significant imbalance of female sex hormones, which makes it difficult for the ovaries to release fully developed eggs. These types of problems are those that can affect a woman’s fertility. That is why an early diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate treatment as soon as possible is so important. At FastlyHealwe give you all the information you need about the symptoms, causes, and treatment of polycystic ovaries.
Symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome
Varied and different symptoms can express polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and not all women have the same as this depends on fluctuations in hormone levels and personal.
In addition to the presence of multiple small cysts in the ovaries, one of the main symptoms experienced by those affected by this syndrome are changes in the menstrual cycle; can be seen:
- Secondary amenorrhea: absence of menstruation after having had one or more regular periods during puberty.
- Irregular menstrual periods can be intermittent, and with a variable amount of flow, that is, from very abundant to very light.
On the other hand, due to the elevated levels of androgens (male sex hormones), that occurs in PCOS, symptoms such as:
- Excessive hair growth in unusual areas such as the face, chest, abdomen, or upper thigh. This condition is medically called hirsutism and affects about 70% of women with PCOS.
- Difficult-to-control acne on the face, chest, or back.
- Weak hair and excessive hair loss.
- Increased fat in the skin and hair.
- The appearance of dark and thick spots on the skin, mainly in the neck, breasts, armpits, and groin.
It is also important to note that polycystic ovary syndrome increases the risk of infertility due to the ovulation process not happening correctly, as well as weight gain and obesity, suffering from diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and triglycerides and, therefore, of cardiovascular problems.
Causes of polycystic ovary syndrome
When you suffer from polycystic ovary syndrome, ovulation does not proceed normally. The mature eggs that must be released during this process do not do so and instead remain in the ovaries forming small cysts surrounded by a small amount of fluid. Despite this, it should be clarified that not all women with PCOS will present ovaries with this aspect.
Although the exact causes of PCOS are unknown, it has been suggested that it may be related to several factors that work together, such as elevated androgen levels, insulin resistance, and irregular menstrual periods.
- Elevated levels of androgens: all women produce a certain amount of these hormones, but when this amount is higher than average, it can complicate the ovulation process and prevent the release of a mature egg every month.
- Insulin resistance: Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to move into the cells, and the body has the energy it needs. However, when cells do not react correctly to the effects of insulin, there is an increase in glucose in the blood, which can lead to diabetes, as well as an increase in appetite and other hormonal imbalances.
- Irregular menstrual periods: Women who have irregular periods are more likely to develop PCOS.
It has also been pointed out that PCOS tends to appear in women of different generations of the same family, which is why it is considered that in addition to the above, there is a substantial genetic component.
Treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome
In any of the above symptoms, the lack of menstrual periods or irregular menstruation, it is advisable to consult with the doctor to carry out a complete physical examination and the appropriate tests. Material quizzes, blood tests, and ultrasounds are usually sufficient to diagnose PCOS.
The treatment of this condition must be adapted to each woman based on her symptoms and the circumstances she finds herself in. In the first place, since weight gain and obesity are frequent signs in women with PCOS, the doctor may advise a change in diet and lifestyle habits to lose the extra kilos. Following a balanced diet, low in fat and sugar, and daily physical activity (at least 30 minutes) can help treat hormonal changes and control conditions such as diabetes or high blood pressure.
In some cases, insulin-sensitizing drugs may be prescribed, that is, those specified for the treatment of diabetes. These make the body organs capture sugar and, in this way, eliminate that insulin resistance, which is one of the leading causes of polycystic ovary syndrome.
On the other hand, oral contraceptives may be advised to regulate hormonal production and menstrual cycles. These medications will help reduce the excessive growth of body hair and the uncontrolled appearance of acne on the skin.
As mentioned above, infertility is a more common sign in people with polycystic ovary syndrome, so the doctor may consider prescribing fertility drugs to women who want to get pregnant. The usual options are drugs such as clomiphene, letrozole, metformin, or gonadotropins. Only if the doctor considers it necessary and there is no response to the treatments the option of surgery to remove the cysts present in the ovary and help with ovulation can be regarded as. When nothing discussed so far works to get pregnant, it will be suggested to undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment.
This article is merely informative. At FastlyHeal .com, we do not have the power to prescribe medical treatments or make any diagnosis. We invite you to see a doctor in the case of presenting any condition or discomfort.
If you want to read more articles similar to Polycystic ovaries: symptoms, causes, and treatment, we recommend that you enter our category of the Female reproductive system.
I am a Surgeon with a diploma in comprehensive ultrasound and surgical care residency, an area I am specializing in. During the exercise of my profession, I have realized the need for patients to know the diseases they suffer, and I can tell you that a large part of their complications is due to a lack of information. Being a health web writer allows me to transmit my experience, without borders, to all those readers eager for knowledge, educate them in the prevention of diseases and promote a healthy lifestyle.