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Medical dictionary

by Alivia Nyhan

The medical dictionary defines medicine as “any drug or other agent that prevents, alleviates, or cures disease or pain, or that otherwise enhances physical or mental well-being.”

There are three main types of medicines:

1) prescription medicines;

Prescription medicines can only be obtained with a doctor’s prescription. They are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

2) over-the-counter medicines

Over-the-counter medicines are those that can be bought without a prescription. They are regulated by the FDA, but not as strictly as prescription medicines.

3) dietary supplements.

Dietary supplements are those that are not regulated by the FDA.

What are medicines?

A medicine is any substance used to treat a disease or improve a person’s health. There are many different types of medicines, and each one has a different function. Some medicines are designed to cure a disease, while others are meant to relieve symptoms or prevent a disease from occurring in the first place. Still, other medicines are used for purely cosmetic purposes, such as to improve the appearance of skin or hair.

Some of the medical terms are listed below:

Amphipathic: Amphipathic drugs are those that have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. Amphipathic drugs are also used in cosmetics and cleaning products because of their ability to mix with both water and oil.

Hymeneal caruncle: Hymeneal caruncle is a very important medication for women about to get married. It will help to clean the vagina and make it easier for the man to enter.

Diadochokinesis: Diadochokinesis is a branch of health science that deals with the study, prevention, and treatment of disease. It includes the study of the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of diseases.

Phlebostatic axis: There are many different types of medicines that serve a variety of functions. One such type of medicine is the phlebostatic axis, which is used to treat conditions that affect the veins.

Functional disease: A functional disease is one that results from a malfunction in the body’s systems. This can be due to a number of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environment.

Embryonic outline: The embryonic outline is the earliest stage of development when the embryo is just a mass of undifferentiated cells. This is followed by the fetal stage when the fetus begins to develop distinct features.

Matrifocal family: In a matrifocal family, the father’s role is typically secondary to the mother’s. This type of family structure is common in cultures where women have a high degree of social and economic power.

Gastrokinetic drugs: Gastrokinetic drugs act on the gastrointestinal tract to move or expel contents. They are sometimes used to treat conditions such as constipation or diarrhea.

FiO2: FiO2 or fraction of inspired oxygen, is the percentage of oxygen a person inhales. A normal FiO2 is 21%. A FiO2 of less than 21% is considered hypoxemia.

Homogenesis: Homogenesis is the biological process by which like begets like, i.e. offspring inherit the characteristics of their parents. The term can also refer to the similarity of tissues or organs within an individual.

Ecchymotic mask: A medical ecchymotic mask is a mask that is designed to prevent the spread of ecchymotic diseases. Ecchymotic diseases are diseases that cause the skin to break down and bleed.

Antigravity muscles: Antigravity muscles are muscles that oppose the action of gravity. They include the muscles of the back, which keep the spine upright, and the muscles of the abdominal wall, which support the trunk.

Extrinsic muscles: Extrinsic muscles are muscles that originate from outside of the bone. Intrinsic muscles originate from within the bone. Extrinsic muscles are mostly responsible for gross (large and easily visible) movement.

Ultrasonic wave: An ultrasound wave is an acoustic wave whose frequency is higher than the upper audible range, i.e., from 20 kHz to 20,000 kHz. This frequency range is called the ultrasonic range.

Perinatology: Perinatology is a branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of the mother and her fetus or infant before, during, and after childbirth. It covers a wide range of topics, from preconception health care to postnatal care.

Ferguson reflex: The Ferguson reflex is a reflex that is exhibited when the bladder is full and contracts. The reflex is named after the Scottish anatomist Sir Patrick Ferguson. When the bladder is full and contracts, the Ferguson reflex is exhibited.

Cephalocaudal: The cephalocaudal trend is an important concept in understanding human development. This trend helps to explain why the head and upper body develop first during prenatal and infant development.

Cheilosis: Cheilosis is the medical term for cracks in the corners of the mouth. It is a common condition that can be caused by a number of different things, including vitamin deficiencies, dehydration, and mouth infections.

Macroscopic anatomy: Microscopic anatomy is the study of small body structures that can only be seen with the help of a microscope. The two main types of microscopes are light microscopes and electron microscopes.

Assisted death: Assisted death is the ending of a person’s life by means of medical intervention. The intervention may be carried out by a physician, nurse, or another medical practitioner. It is also known as physician-assisted suicide (PAS).

Colloid osmotic pressure: (COP) is the pressure exerted by a solution on a semipermeable membrane. The COP of a solution is determined by the osmotic pressure of the solution and the hydrostatic pressure of the solution.

Applied anatomy: Applied anatomy is the study of the structure and function of the human body in relation to the practice of medicine. It is the application of anatomical knowledge to the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

Batiesthesia; Batiesthesia is the medical term for the sense of touch. The ability to feel texture, temperature, and pain is important for everyday life and many medical procedures.

Target organ: The target organ is the organ or tissues where the effects of a toxic substance are first exhibited. This is important to know because it can help identify the substance causing the toxicity and the severity of the toxicity.

Surface anatomy: Surface anatomy is the study of the external features of the body. This includes the skin, hair, nails, and structures of the head, face, neck, trunk, and limbs.

Sterile field: An area in which all microorganisms have been killed or removed. Sterile fields are used in surgeries and other medical procedures to reduce the risk of infection.

Target cell: A hormone is a chemical messenger produced by one type of cell and then travels through the bloodstream to another type of cell, where it binds to and activates a receptor. The target cell is the cell that contains the receptor for the specific hormone.

Fenestration: Fenestration is a term used in medical imaging to describe a small, window-like opening. Fenestrations are often used to improve image quality and/or to allow access to specific structures.

Concentration gradient: A concentration gradient is important in the medical field because it can help determine how a substance will move within the body. For example, if there is a higher concentration of a substance in the blood, it is more likely to move into the tissues.

Inoculum: Inoculum is a suspension of microorganisms used to infect or inoculate a culture medium. The term is also used to refer to the material used to inoculate an animal or human.

All or nothing law: The all-or-nothing law is an important legal principle when it comes to contracts. This principle requires that a contract be enforced in its entirety or not at all.

Micro dripper: A micro dripper is a small, plastic tube with a very small hole at the end. It is used to deliver a small, controlled amount of fluid to a patient. Microdrippers are commonly used in IV therapy, as they can help deliver a precise and controlled amount of fluid to a patient.

Opportunistic pathogen: An opportunistic pathogen is a microorganism that causes disease only when the host is debilitated or otherwise immunocompromised.

Premorbid personality: Premorbid personality refers to the personality of an individual prior to the onset of a psychological disorder. This term is used to describe someone who may be at risk for developing a disorder, based on their personality traits.

Polychromatic: Polychromatic light is a type of light made up of several different colors. This type of light is often used in medical applications, such as in lasers and microscopes.

Orthopneic position: Orthopneic position is an upright position in which the individual is sitting up with their head and neck in alignment and their knees bent at a right angle. This position is often used when someone is having difficulty breathing.

Health risk: A health risk is a medical condition that increases your chance of developing a disease or health problem. There are many different types of health risks, and some are more serious than others. Some health risks can be controlled, while others cannot.

Couvelaire uterus: Couvelaire uterus is a condition where the lining of the uterus is abnormally thin and presents with hemorrhage. It is a common cause of uterine bleeding in early pregnancy and can lead to miscarriage.

Affective bonding: Affective bonding is the emotional connection between a mother and her infant. It is important for the development of a healthy attachment and helps to ensure that the infant will be able to thrive.

Cephalopelvic disproportion: (CPD) is a condition that can occur during pregnancy. The baby’s head is too large to fit through the mother’s pelvis. CPD can cause problems during labor and delivery, and can even be life-threatening for the mother and the baby.

Monohybrid cross: A monohybrid cross is a genetic cross between two parents that involves only one character or gene. An example of a monohybrid cross would be a cross between a tall pea plant and a short pea plant, where the offspring would be all intermediate in height.

Dihybrid: Dihybrid crosses determine the inheritance pattern of two genes. A dihybrid cross is when two heterozygous parents are crossed. The F1 generation will have a phenotype that is a blend of the two parents.

Dizygotic twins: Dizygotic twins are twins that form when two eggs are fertilized by two sperm. These are also known as fraternal twins. Monozygotic twins form when a single egg is fertilized by a single sperm and then splits into two embryos.

Monozygotic twins: Monozygotic twins are two individuals who develop from a single fertilized egg. This means they have the same genetic material as each other. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, develop from two different fertilized eggs and thus have different genetic material.

Parental generation: Parental generation refers to the group of individuals from which the parents of the current generation were born. The term can also refer to the specific parents of the current generation.

Syncretic thinking: Syncretic thinking is defined as the ability to see relationships between seemingly disparate concepts and to integrate different perspectives into a coherent whole.

Microscopic anatomy: Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute structures of cells and tissues using a microscope. It helps to understand the organization and function of different parts of the body at a microscopic level.

Mydriatic and cycloplegic agent: A mydriatic is a medication used to dilate the pupil of the eye. A cycloplegic agent is used to paralyze the ciliary muscle, which controls the eye’s accommodation.

Renal cortex: The renal cortex is the outer layer of the kidney. It contains the renal pyramids, cone-shaped structures that project into the renal medulla. The renal cortex is responsible for filtering blood and removing waste products from the body.

Cotyledon: A cotyledon is an embryonic leaf in a seed-bearing plant. The cotyledons are the first leaves to emerge from the seed during germination. In most plants, the cotyledons are thin and papery.

Pulse deficit: Pulse deficit occurs when the heart rate is different between the two pulse points. The most common cause of pulse deficit is an irregular heart rhythm.

Chemical name: The chemical name of a drug is the scientific name given to the chemical structure of the active ingredient. The chemical name is usually different from the generic name or brand name.

Pandy reaction: The pandy reaction is a medical condition that can be debilitating. Symptoms include abdominal pain and cramping, nausea, vomiting, and bloating. This condition can be caused by a variety of things.

Abdominal bandage: An abdominal bandage is a common bandage used to support the abdominal muscles and hold dressings in place. It is usually made from a strip of gauze or other material wrapped around the abdomen.

Cariolymph: Cariolymph is a type of white blood cell. They are an important part of the immune system and help to fight off infections.

Vasomotor center: Vasomotor centers are groups of neurons in the medulla oblongata and pons of the brainstem that control the diameter of blood vessels.

Enteric coating: Enteric coating is a medical term used to describe a barrier applied to oral medication designed to resist degradation and disintegration in the stomach.

Exteroceptive: Exteroceptive receptors are located outside the body and include organs such as the eyes, ears, and skin. Proprioceptive receptors are located within the body, specifically in the muscles, joints, and tendons, and provide information about the position of the body in space.

Chadwick’s sign: Chadwick’s sign is defined as bluish discoloration of the vagina and cervix, which is caused by engorgement of the venous plexus in the pelvis during pregnancy.

Stomatognathic system: Stomatognathic system is the medical term for the mouth and its related structures. This system includes the teeth, gums, tongue, palate, and lips. The stomatognathic system is responsible for the functions of chewing, swallowing, and speaking.

Leukoerythroblastic anemia: Leukoerythroblastic anemia is characterized by large, immature white blood cells (leukocytes) in the bone marrow and circulating in the blood.

Developmental anatomy: Developmental anatomy is the study of the changes in form and function of the body during the prenatal period. It encompasses a wide range of topics, including organogenesis, cellular differentiation, and growth and remodeling.

Descriptive anatomy: Descriptive anatomy is the study of the structure of the body and its organs. It can be divided into macroscopic anatomy, which is the study of large structures visible to the naked eye, and microscopic anatomy, which is the study of structures that can only be seen with a microscope.

Surgical anatomy: Surgical anatomy is the study of the structure and relationships of the body’s organs and tissues as they relate to surgery. It is a vital science that helps surgeons safely and effectively perform operations.

Radiological anatomy: Radiological anatomy is the study of the normal structure of the body as seen on X-rays. This branch of medicine is important for diagnosing and treating conditions that affect the bones, joints, and soft tissues.

Regional anatomy: Regional anatomy is the study of the body in relation to the regions of the body. This is in contrast to surface anatomy, which looks at the body in terms of its external features.

Autosome: A typical human cell contains 46 chromosomes, which are arranged into 23 pairs. The first 22 pairs are called autosomes, and the last pair is the sex chromosomes, called the X and Y chromosomes.

Shear: Shear stress is defined as the force applied to the material over an area. The area can be of any size but is typically small. The force can be applied in any direction but is typically perpendicular to the material.

Psamoma body: A Psamoma body is a small, calcified body that is found in the dermis of the skin. They are thought to be remnants of embryonic skin cells.

Scattergram: A scattergram is a graph that shows how two variables are related. The variables are plotted on the x- and y-axes and the data points are plotted on the graph. The scattergram can be used to determine a relationship between the two variables.

Experimental epidemiology: Experimental epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in populations. It includes the study of the natural history of the disease, the effects of exposure to risk factors, and the development and evaluation of interventions.

Sclerotome: The sclerotome is first apparent as a thickening of the embryonic mesoderm in the ventral (anterior) half of the somite. This thickening eventually forms a mass of cells that migrate ventrally and surround the notochord.

Schindylesis: Schindylesis is the medical term for a type of joint that forms between two bones in the human body. This kind of join is classified as a fibrous joint, which means that the bones are held together by connective tissue, rather than by cartilage or a synovial joint.

Hyperpyrexia: Hyperpyrexia is a medical term that refers to a body temperature above the normal range. Hyperpyrexia can be caused by a variety of conditions, including infection, heat stroke, or certain medications.

Passive play: Passive play in medical terms is when the patient or doctor takes on a more submissive role during the exam or treatment. This can be due to the doctor being more experienced, the patient being nervous, or a variety of other reasons.

Intracellular fluid: (ICF) is the fluid contained within cells. This fluid is composed of water, electrolytes, and other small molecules. The ICF is separated from the extracellular fluid (ECF) by the cell membrane.

Macrogotero: Macrogotero is a medical term that refers to a large, abnormal blood clot that forms in the veins. These clots can be life-threatening if they break loose and travel to the lungs, heart, or brain.

Metacentric: A metacentric person has their center of gravity in the middle of their body. This makes them more balanced and able to stay upright easier than someone with their center of gravity off to the side.

Ovalocytes: An ovalocyte is a type of cell found in the bone marrow. These cells are larger than erythrocytes and have a nucleus that is oval in shape. Ovalocytes are thought to be precursors to erythrocytes and play a role in the production of new blood cells.

Fenestrated: When we talk about fenestrated medical devices, we are referring to devices that have one or more small openings. These openings help to improve blood flow and reduce the risk of clotting.

Pathological physiology: Pathological physiology is the study of how diseases develop and progress. It can help us to understand why certain diseases occur, how they are transmitted, and how they can be treated.

Multiple fission: Multiple fission is a type of asexual reproduction found in some prokaryotic organisms. This process results in the creation of two or more genetically identical daughter cells from a single parent cell.

Synaptic cleft: A synaptic cleft is a small gap between two neurons. This gap allows neurotransmitters to pass from one neuron to the other.

Enamel hypocalcification: Enamel hypocalcification is a medical term used to describe a condition where the enamel on teeth is not properly calcified. This can lead to a number of problems, including increased sensitivity to hot and cold temperatures, and an increased risk of tooth decay.

Clinical horizon: The clinical horizon is the distance from the midline of the body to the point where a lesion or abnormality is first seen or palpated. It is used to describe the location of a lesion.

Viral infection: A viral infection is an infection that is caused by a virus. Viruses are small infectious particles that can replicate inside the cells of a living organism.

Nursing observation: Nursing observation is the gathering of data about a patient’s condition that is then recorded and analyzed. The information gathered during nursing observation can be used to make decisions about a patient’s care.

Concrete thinking: Concrete thinking is defined as thinking that is based on facts and tangible evidence. This type of thinking is often used in the medical field, as doctors and nurses need to be able to think critically and make decisions based on what they observe.

Mean upper arm circumference: MUAC is a measure of the circumference of the middle of the upper arm. It is used to estimate the malnutrition of a population. The MUAC is measured using a tape measure, with the arm relaxed and the tape measure placed around the midpoint of the upper arm.

Polysomy: Polysomy is a condition where a person has more than two copies of a chromosome. This can be caused by an error in cell division called nondisjunction. Polysomy can cause problems with cell function and development.

Genetic pool: The medical term “genetic pool” refers to the sum total of all the genes in a population. This includes all the variations of alleles that exist within that population. The genetic pool is important because it determines the health and fitness of a population.

Primordium: Primordium can be found in many different parts of the body, and each one will go on to form a specific structure. For example, the primordium that will become the heart first appears in the chest cavity as a small group of cells.

Motor protein: There are many different types of motor proteins, each with a specific function. For example, myosin is a motor protein that helps cells move by contracting and relaxing.

Radiopaque: Radiopaque substances do not allow X-rays to pass through them. This means that they will appear white on an X-ray. Radiopaque substances are often used in medical imaging, as they can help to clearly delineate organs and other structures.

Submetacentric: A submetacentric chromosome has the centromere in the middle, and the two arms are unequal in length. A submetacentric chromosome is a type of chromosome that has the centromere in the middle and two arms of unequal length.

Optical thermometer: An optical thermometer is a medical instrument that uses infrared radiation to measure body temperature. The instrument is placed on the forehead, and the infrared sensor measures the temperature of the skin.

Active transport: Active transport is the movement of molecules across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient. This type of transport requires energy and is often used to move ions and other small molecules against their concentration gradient.

Symbolic interactions: Symbolic interactionism is a sociological theory that posits that human interaction is guided by symbols and meanings that are attached to those symbols.

Neonatologist: A neonatologist is a physician who specializes in the care of newborn infants, especially high-risk neonates. Neonatologists are trained in the assessment and management of newborns with a variety of problems, including respiratory distress, cardiac anomalies, and infections.

Candidiasis: Candidiasis is a fungal infection that can occur in various parts of the body. The most common type of candidiasis is thrush, which affects the mouth and throat. Candidiasis can also affect the skin, nails, and vaginal area.