A fistula is an abnormal connection that occurs between two parts of the body, such as organs, blood vessels, or other structures. In the case at hand, the perianal fistula occurs in the rectal area, a region that is distinguished from the rest of the intestine by having a layer of skin lining, which predisposes it to fistula.
When this happens, a duct is created between the anal canal and the skin that surrounds the anus, causing a painful inflammation that is usually accompanied by purulent secretions that are very annoying for the person who suffers them. The only way to treat this injury is surgery. At FastlyHeal we offer you all the details about the perianal fistula so that you know its causes, symptoms and treatment .
Causes of perianal fistula
There are several risk factors that can contribute to the development of a perian fistula , l including:
- An abscess in the region of the rectum that has not drained correctly and consequently leaves the fistula in question.
- An injury produced during a surgical procedure, an infection or an inflammation in the anal area.
- The obstruction of a gland near the anal canal, whose fluid accumulates, causing infection and the formation of the duct.
- Certain intestinal or anorectal disorders such as constipation, chronic diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease .
- Diabetes, a weakened immune system, or having anal sex.
Symptoms of perianal fistula
The symptoms of perianal fistula depend largely on where the fistula is located, but in general we can find:
- Sharp and intense pain during bowel movements, especially in the area where the fistula is located. The pain can remain even several hours after you have had a bowel movement.
- Purulent, fecal and even bloody secretions that can cause itching and itching, eczema on the surrounding skin and spots on the underwear.
- Hard lump, annoying and painful to the touch at the point where the fistula is located, where the fluid is retained.
- Occasionally, in more severe cases, general symptoms of an infection may occur, such as fever, fatigue, or chills.
Treatment of perianal fistula
The first step in diagnosing a perianal fistula is a physical exam. The specialist should look for abscesses and openings in the skin by feeling the anal area and observing the condition of the skin around the anus. The fistula is not always on the surface, so it is often necessary to perform an anal exam or view the rectal canal using an anoscope. Once found, it is important to determine its depth and path, and find out if it is caused by a major disease.
Once diagnosed, the fistula must be treated surgically . There are several techniques to perform this intervention, depending on the characteristics of the fistula:
- Fistulotomy allows the fistulous duct to be opened and emptied, ensuring efficient and rapid healing.
- Fistulectomy opts to completely remove the path of the fistula, so that the opening produced is larger and, therefore, healing occurs in a slower and more expensive way.
- Finally, it is also decided to pass a sedal through the duct of the fistula, severing the sphincter or draining the fluid from it, so that the area is cleaned for subsequent surgical repair.
It is advisable to take measures to avoid this type of injury, through a diet rich in fiber that ensures the proper functioning of the intestinal transit, proper hygiene of the anal area and regular physical activity to strengthen the immune system.
This article is merely informative, at FastlyHeal .com we do not have the power to prescribe medical treatments or make any type of diagnosis. We invite you to see a doctor in the case of presenting any type of condition or discomfort.
If you want to read more articles similar to Perianal fistula: causes, symptoms and treatment , we recommend that you enter our Digestive System category .
I am a Surgeon with a diploma in comprehensive ultrasound and surgical care residency, an area I am specializing in. During the exercise of my profession, I have realized the need for patients to know the diseases they suffer, and I can tell you that a large part of their complications is due to a lack of information. Being a health web writer allows me to transmit my experience, without borders, to all those readers eager for knowledge, educate them in the prevention of diseases and promote a healthy lifestyle.