In 1879, this cell type known as eosinophils was discovered, coming from the bone marrow and circulating in the blood at a low value of approximately 1 to 6%. The variation of its importance will depend mainly on allergic diseases such as, for example, allergic rhinitis, asthma, and adverse reactions to medications. In this way, it can be said that eosinophils are included in the five main types of blood cells targets that are responsible for fighting diseases in the body.
In some cases, there may be variations in its value. If the variation is above its expected value, it is called eosinophilia. Otherwise, if it is below its standard weight, it is called eosinopenia. At FastlyHealwe will explain in detail what are the average values of eosinophils in the blood and the reasons for the possible variations in this value.
Table of Contents
Eosinophils: what are they, and what are their functions
Described since 1879, eosinophils are included within the group of white blood cells or leukocytes, whose name is given by how the cell stains histologically when it is viewed at the microscopic level. Thanks to a process known as hematopoiesis, eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow. They have a half-life of approximately 3 or 4 days in the blood before going to the tissues, where they last a few days. Its primary function lies in acting against allergic reactions. However, it is also included within the cell group that is responsible for defending the body from bacteria and other pathogens:
- It has a cytotoxic function responsible for destroying any pathological agent that enters the human body.
- It also has a phagocytic effect capable of adhering to the cytoplasmic membrane of parasites, viruses, or bacteria to eliminate them.
- Finally, it has an essential function in the inflammatory process of the tissues, acting against allergies and controlling the immune response of the pathological agent. This is possible through the neutralization of histamine.
Normal blood eosinophil values
Eosinophils represent approximately 1 to 6% of all circulating leukocytes in the blood system. The average value for eosinophils in the blood is about 350 cells per microliter of blood. Eosinophils are only present in internal organs in the presence or sign of some disease.
If the value of eosinophils increases above its average value, that is, exceeding even more than 400 – 500 cells per milliliter of blood, this is called eosinophilia and is indicative of necessary conditions such as:
- Allergic processes such as asthma, allergic reactions to medications, and dermatitis.
- Parasitic infections
- Autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus.
The diagnosis of eosinophilia will depend directly on the blood test. Symptoms are primarily related to the cause of high blood eosinophil levels.
On the other hand, there are variations of eosinophils where blood values are below 50 cells per microliter of blood. This is called eosinopenia and is widely related to steroid treatment or Cushing’s syndrome. In addition, other causes can be associated, such as:
- Aplastic anemia.
- Alcohol intoxication
The blood test will allow the doctor to diagnose the value of eosinophils in the blood and to have a presumptive diagnosis of the cause of eosinopenia.
High eosinophils: causes
Variations in the average values of eosinophils in the blood, significantly above their ideal concentration, can be related to severe diseases. Eosinophils can distribute throughout the bloodstream and target where the foreign substance or agent is present to attack it directly, for example:
- In the case of bacterial infections, it is normal for there to be an increase in eosinophils in measles, tuberculous meningitis, and mumps, frequent patients in countries with unsanitary conditions.
- On the other hand, in the case of parasitic infections, high eosinophil levels in the blood can be reflected. This occurs in the presence of, for example, toxoplasmosis, malaria, and schistosomiasis.
Other possible causes of high eosinophils are:
- Fungal infections such as pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.
- Allergic reactions from insect bites.
- Allergic reactions due to intolerance to gluten or lactose.
- Autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis and scleroderma.
- Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome is a rare disorder in which the eosinophil value increases above 1500 cells per microliter of blood. Without any supporting cause, it usually appears that it is much more common in males at any age. About this syndrome, more than 80% of people die in less than two years if they do not comply with treatment. On the contrary, using the appropriate treatment, 80% survive .
All the values reflected in a blood count are essential for a good medical diagnosis.
This article is merely informative. At FastlyHeal .com, we do not have the power to prescribe medical treatments or make any diagnosis. We invite you to see a doctor if you present any condition or discomfort.
If you want to read more articles similar to Normal values of eosinophils in the blood, we recommend entering our blood, heart, and circulation category.
I am a Surgeon with a diploma in comprehensive ultrasound and surgical care residency, an area I am specializing in. During the exercise of my profession, I have realized the need for patients to know the diseases they suffer, and I can tell you that a large part of their complications is due to a lack of information. Being a health web writer allows me to transmit my experience, without borders, to all those readers eager for knowledge, educate them in the prevention of diseases and promote a healthy lifestyle.