Home Endocrine systemDiabetes Acute and chronic complications of type 2 diabetes

Acute and chronic complications of type 2 diabetes

by Alivia Nyhan
Published: Last Updated on

The pancreas is an organ located in the abdominal area behind the stomach. It is essential in the digestion process and the production of hormones because a group of its cells produces insulin, a hormone necessary to regulate blood sugar levels known as glucose. If for some reason, a person has a failure in the production or function of this hormone, they will be prone to suffer a series of manifestations and a disease well known to many, called diabetes. This disease can be classified into type 1 and type 2, with severe complications in the patient. In this FastlyHealarticle, we will talk about the acute and chronic complications of type 2 diabetes.

What is type 2 diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which blood sugar levels are altered, known as glucose. Once we eat, the glucose present in the food enters the bloodstream, and the pancreas begins producing a hormone called insulin thanks to it, the glucose in the blood is taken to the cells so that the body obtains the energy it requires. When the pancreas fails the production or function of insulin, blood glucose levels rise, and the person becomes ill, suffering from type 2 diabetes.

People who are most at risk for type 2 diabetes are:

  • Older adults
  • People with obesity
  • People with a family history
  • Sedentary people or who do not exercise properly.

People who suffer from prediabetes also run the risk of suffering it in the future if it is not appropriately reversed and high blood glucose levels are counteracted. These characteristics can differentiate it from type 1 diabetes, produced by an autoimmune disorder. The immune system mistakenly attacks the healthy cells of the body, and among these cells are affected the beta of the pancreas, which are insulin producers.

Acute complications of type 2 diabetes

If you do not control your blood sugar levels, you can quickly suffer from complications that play an essential role since your life can be affected, known as acute complications. These complications can disappear rapidly if you take the necessary measures against the disease. The acute complications of type 2 diabetes are:


It corresponds to abnormally low blood glucose levels. It appears more frequently because of the same treatment for the condition, whether insulin administration or oral hypoglycemic agents. It also seems to be due to meals or the lack of exercise. The patient with hypoglycemia is always agitated, with weakness, sweating, and fear.


Also called hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. It means that blood glucose levels are highly elevated, over 300 mg/dl. It is the type of crisis that most requires intensive treatment. This complication leads to dehydration due to a need to urinate excessively since glucose is excreted through the urine. In turn, dehydration produces an excessive accumulation of glucose in the blood, thus producing a vicious cycle. People with hyperglycemia generally do not know they have the condition and have symptoms such as:

  • However,
  • Fatigue
  • Excessive urination
  • Confusion
  • Seizures
  • Coma

Diabetic ketoacidosis

It is considered a medical emergency in diabetic people. It is an increase in blood glucose levels. The difference is that there is no adequate production or function of insulin, so it will not be possible to burn glucose properly, and there will be an increase in fat in the body, which go to the liver, the one in charge of producing ketones from fat. Over time the body will have an excess of glucose and acids, causing complications. The symptoms they include are:

  • Sickness
  • Vomiting
  • Breath like fruit
  • However,
  • Excessive urination
  • Soft spot
  • Difficulty speaking

Periodontal disease

Studies have shown that people with type 2 diabetes produce periodontal disease, which is an inflammation of the gums of microbial origin and that in this case is produced by an increase in blood glucose, which makes it a risk factor for alterations of the gums that over time can cause the loss of teeth by loosening.

Chronic complications of type 2 diabetes

The chronic complications of type 2 diabetes frequently appear over the years, and this is because the increase in blood glucose causes damage to the blood vessels. Before symptoms appear, damage to the person’s vascular system has already occurred, causing lesions in the small plates, even in the arteries; Therefore, an exhaustive routine analysis is required to detect if the person suffers any alteration or may present it reverse it in time.

Damage to small vessels can cause microvascular diseases such as:

  • Fail the heart.
  • Kidney damage
  • Loss of vision or blindness.
  • Dementia.

While the injury to the arteries is considered macrovascular disease since the damage is more extensive and generates different manifestations such as:

How to avoid complications of type 2 diabetes

Diabetes is a disease that accompanies those who suffer from it throughout life. However, this does not mean that a diabetic person should limit himself to having a lower quality of life to avoid problems since they can do anything with the necessary preventive measures. Among the most recommended measures are the following:

  • Please comply with the treatment appropriately: which implies taking the medication your doctor prescribes according to his indications, assessing blood glucose levels frequently, and attending medical control appointments with the regularity you are instructed.
  • Eat properly: Avoiding excess sugar is essential in the treatment of diabetes, as well as eating appropriate amounts of fruits, vegetables, grains, proteins, and healthy fats.
  • Exercise: In this way, you stimulate the body to absorb the glucose circulating in the blood to produce energy for the muscles.
  • Avoid smoking: Due to tobacco’s impact on blood vessels, which are one of the most affected organs in diabetes.

This article is merely informative. At FastlyHeal .com, we do not have the power to prescribe medical treatments or make any diagnosis. We invite you to see a doctor if you present any condition or discomfort.

If you want to read more articles similar to Acute and chronic complications of type 2 diabetes, we recommend that you enter our Endocrine System category.

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