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Stomatitis: types, symptoms and treatment

by Alivia Nyhan
Published: Last Updated on

Stomatitis is the mucous membrane inflammation that can occur in any part of the oral structure: tongue, cheeks, gums, lips, throat, and base of the mouth. Many factors can influence the appearance of this type of inflammation, so its causes range from inadequate oral hygiene to an allergic reaction. The most characteristic symptom of Stomatitis is the presence of superficial ulcers in any part of the oral cavity.

Stomatitis can occur at any age, even in newborn babies. It can become such a painful condition that it makes eating, chewing, or swallowing difficult, depending on the area where the ulcers are located, which can be canker sores. Mouthparts are characterized by being red with a covering of yellow tone. This can be one of the most bothersome conditions a person can experience, but it does not pose significant health risks. This FastlyHealarticle explains what Stomatitis consists of types, symptoms, and treatment.

Types of Stomatitis

Aphthous Stomatitis

It is characterized by the appearance of canker sores on the cheeks, tongue, and lips. The exact cause of this condition is unknown, but it is associated with a weak immune system, poor nutrition, stress, bacteria, and a food allergy. In aphthous Stomatitis, canker sores are recognized because they are composed of a yellow coating, there is no fever, the lesions take between one or two weeks to heal, and it is usually a recurrent condition.

Estomatitis herpetica

This mouth inflammation that causes canker sores that are not necessarily canker sores occurs due to herpes simplex infection or oral herpes. This type of Stomatitis occurs through outbreaks and can be accompanied by pain in the gums and mouth, irritability, drooling, difficulty swallowing, fever, and blisters in various parts of the oral area; once the blisters burst, mouth ulcers form.

Angular Stomatitis

It is a form of inflammation that explicitly affects the corners of the mouth. It occurs mainly due to poor nutrition, accumulation of saliva in the area, or infection. This condition presents as an irritation of the tissues in the area, and then blisters appear that can cause difficulty opening the mouth or bleeding during the opening.


It is so easy to recognize that you have to look at it. This type of Stomatitis presents pain, inflammation, and ulcers in the gums and other vocal areas. It is one of the most common Stomatitis, and when it is recurrent or does not heal after two weeks, it is recommended to study the ulcers in a more profound way to know its cause or triggering factor.

Causes of Stomatitis

Many factors can influence the appearance of inflammation and mouth ulcers, even though most are not related to the mouth area but respond to processes that occur in other parts of the body and are manifested through the oral cavity. The leading causes of Stomatitis are:

  • Inadequate oral hygiene.
  • Dentures, splints, and dentures that don’t fit properly.
  • Trauma to the mouth affects the epithelial cells that make up the mucous membrane, such as when scorching beverages are consumed, leading to oral irritation.
  • Consumption of some medications.
  • Allergy to certain foods such as chocolate or nuts. Irritant reaction due to ingestion of citrus fruits.
  • Intestinal infection or digestive system problems.
  • Long-lasting fevers.
  • Diseases such as infectious mononucleosis.
  • Bad nutrition.
  • Stress, nerves, and anxiety.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency, bacterial or viral infections, hormonal changes.
  • Celiac disease or irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Ulcerative gingivitis.
  • Weakened immune system

Stomatitis symptoms

The most characteristic symptom of Stomatitis is the appearance of red ulcers in any part of the oral cavity. These ulcers can cause a lot of pain. They can disable the person from eating, speaking, swallowing, chewing, and performing any action that involves using the affected area. Ulcers can take about two weeks to heal, although there are medications that can speed up the healing of these injuries.

In addition, Stomatitis can cause fever, irritation, inflammation in the affected area, bleeding, blisters, difficulty swallowing, speaking, eating, and even sleeping, severe pain, burning, itching when the ulcers are drying, and suppuration of the ulcers.

Treatment of Stomatitis

The treatment of Stomatitis consists of treating the cause that originates it to prevent the outbreak of mouth ulcers from continuing to expand and make them heal completely. However, depending on the type of Stomatitis diagnosed, the treatment may vary since aphthous, angular, and gingivostomatitis have the same treatment, but herpetic Stomatitis does not:

Treatment for aphthous, angular and gingivostomatitis Stomatitis

When caused by an identified bacterium or infection, the health specialist will prescribe treatment with specific medications such as antibiotics and topical lotions. If it is not possible to know what causes aphthous Stomatitis, then the ideal will be to use actions that allow the relief of symptoms:

  • Intake of liquids.
  • Gargle with salt water 2 or 3 times a day.
  • Apply a topical sedative to decrease pain.
  • Apply hydrogen peroxide with baking soda to the canker sores to dry them.
  • When the canker sore is in delicate areas such as the gum, it may be necessary to apply particular medications to treat the area.
  • The use of anti-inflammatories is essential to reduce the injury.
  • Avoid consumption in case of burns or when Stomatitis is caused by an injury such as a bite.
  • Avoid salty or highly citrus foods.
  • I am using pain relievers.
  • Maintain good oral hygiene.

Estomatitis herpetica

  • Use of antiviral medications to eradicate herpes.
  • Using ice on the injury helps reduce pain.
  • The use of anti-inflammatory drugs three days after the lesions appear is recommended to reduce inflammation.
  • In case of fever, you can take painkillers.

If symptoms do not respond to treatment and Stomatitis persists without apparent cause, the ulcers need to be examined by biopsy.

This article is merely informative, at FastlyHeal .com we do not have the power to prescribe medical treatments or make any type of diagnosis. We invite you to see a doctor in the case of presenting any type of condition or discomfort.

If you want to read more articles similar to Stomatitis: types, symptoms, and treatment , we recommend that you enter our category of Teeth and mouth.

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